So here we go.
We've got Home menu, Insert menu, Page Layout menu, Formula menu, Data menu, Review menu and View menu. There is one more menu that is hidden by default: Developer menu. It won’t be discussed because it is used mainly for including a macro (program) in an Excel file.
The home menu is Excel’s most used menu. It has very straightforward sub-menus.
Clipboard: Allows you to copy, cut and paste in Excel
Font: Allows you to set font size, color, background color (fill) & turn on bold or italics or underline.
Alignment: Allows you to set the position of whatever you've typed (or copied) into Excel. It also allows you to set how it’s written: horizontal, vertical or slanting.
Number: Allows you to set how a number is shown in Excel: regular number, currency, scientific, percentage, fraction…
Styles: Allows you to set the format of an Excel cell based on the data it holds (aka conditional formatting). It also allows you to convert a selection of cells to table, and to set quick formats for a cell.
Cells: Allows you to insert new cells, delete cells and change cell format.
Editing: Houses the very useful Sort and filter tools, Find & Select, Find & Replace, and also Autosum which helps you sum all numbers in a selection.